By Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)

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The loading of Nand P in relation to trophic level and mean depth in the Swedish Great Lakes (from Vollenweider, 1968 and Ahl, 1975) (DSO in m); according to definition, 50 %of the lake area should lie below the D50 -value and 50 % above. The median depth is determined from the percentage hypsographic curve (or the hypsographic curve) (see Fig. 22). DSO = 22 m in Lake Vanem. In lakes with convex relative hypsographic curves, like Lake Vanem, the mean depth (D) is larger than the median length (DSO )' In lakes with concave relative hypsographic curves the opposite is valid.

28). The slope between two contour lines in the bathymetric map can be detennined from the formula (see Fig. ~ a 46 p = 20 • a " (21) (m) o tg 20 «0. Ot07 y .. r:. ~40 c 60 Schematical echoprofile o 2 4 6 Distance 8 10 12(km) Fig. 28. Example illustrating the determination of the slope, ap in percent, and aO in degrees, from an echograrn foE-----X----~ Fig. 29. -a 1. 2' where a l and a 2 = the cumulative area (in km2) limited by the two contour lines. g. g. Gilbert, 1975 and Sturm, 1975), (Table 12).

24. From the map in scale 1:250 000 a total of 1 286 intersectional points were obtained. e. the error in the length determination should, with a 95 % certainty, be less than 5 %. , 18 1\ 4 16 116 5 , 15 ~ ~ 17 11 12 14 13 Fig. 24. g. 1:1 000 000, then we would have a different x-value. Let us say x = 200. Thus to obtain the shoreline length with the same statistical certainty, we must make more determinations. e. the number of times the checkered transparent paper is put on the map and the x-value determined, and the number of intersectional points (x) is given in Table 7.

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