By Christoph Kausch

Customer integration within the early innovation part has been thought of the tactic of selection in idea and perform. turning out to be event with the concept that has proven unforeseen unwanted effects that can even outweigh its famous merits. hence, administration should be capable of investigate upfront even if the involvement of consumers will upload total price to every specific innovation undertaking. To help yet to not change the ultimate managerial determination, a mathematical formulation is constructed. it may be utilized to every kind of technique buildings, takes into consideration the dangers and merits contingent on a company's scenario in addition to risk-reducing and benefit-increasing measures and interprets them into numerical values. The ensuing determine exhibits the potential price of shopper integration in a particular undertaking.

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1981; Reichart 2002: 92). According to Hagedoorn (1993), time reduction is one of the most important motives and outcomes of alliances with customers. Empiric studies by Zahn, Komes et al. (1995: 60ff) have shown that 57% of the investigated companies could reduce the time for product development by integrating customers. g. a customer’s idea may make further research unnecessary, or it may abbreviate the later production process or preparations for market launch. However, recent empirical research has questioned this benefit; the high hopes placed in time-reducing effects of customer integration have not been fulfilled to the expected extent (Brockhoff 2005a).

Engelhardt et al. 1993) implies a certain time element, excluding the brief moment of handing over products or rendering a service. In addition, the interaction must be intentional on both parts and aimed at cooperation, even if it is a short one as in conventional market research. Its main characteristic is the consequent orientation towards a customer’s proactive role in innovative activities (Reichwald and Piller 2005). The strongest form of integration is customer partnering, defined as a “formalized working relationship between a customer and a manufacturer which involves performing coordinated development activities to develop a new product” (Campbell and Cooper 1999: 508).

1991; Lengnick-Hall 1996) and to overcome information deficits which pose risks (Helten 1994; Li and Calantone 1998). Both motives for customer integration are described in detail by Hayes and Wheelwright (1988). Since the 1970s, active cooperation with customers has been an object of scientific research, starting with Achilladelis et al. (1971) and Rothwell et al. (1974) who stressed the importance of understanding customers' needs for a successful product development. An active role for customers as idea generators was first suggested in the 1960s (Enos 1962; Freeman 1968).

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