By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs an important position in lots of disciplines, particularly computing device Programming, usual and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated platforms, man made Intelligence and laptop studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in numerous disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and modifications. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to seize them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable via the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and purposes. it's the effect of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and desktop studying which creates the center of the ebook. A normal framework, according to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.

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The cell has abstracted the property of verticality, without being concerned with the particulars. The ability to abstract is not limited to the cells in the visual system, but extends to all sensory areas of the brain, as well as to higher cognitive properties and judgmental levels.

For this reason, in many primitive societies a man had two names: one to be used in the everyday life, and another, the real one, is kept secret. For similar reasons also the names of gods and angels were often considered secret. An Egyptian myth tells that the goddess Isis, in order to take over the power of the sun-god Ra, had to discover his name. Magical power or not, a name is, after all, a shortcut allowing a complex set of properties to be synthesized into a word. 7 French philosopher, who lived in France in the second half of XII century.

Similar to the notion of category is the one of concept. , the process aimed at identifying the “essence” in the sensorial input [522]. An interesting discussion concerns the comparison between abstraction theories in classical Artificial Intelligence (where Barsalou sees them based on predicate calculus), and in connectionism. Barsalou identifies an abstraction as an attractor for a statistical combination of properties; here the abstraction is represented by the active units that characterize the attractor.

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